BY MUHAMMAD MA’RUF, Ph.D
Director, Global Thinkers Institute (GTI), Observer, Researcher on Geophilosophy, Geopolitics, Geostrategy, and Defense.
GTI-The "two state solution" and "one state solution" options have always surfaced during tensions and wars between Israel and Palestine since 1947. The question is, why is the "two state solution" more popular and dominant than the "one state solution". This article will attempt to answer it.
The easiest answer is because the "two state solution" is a dream and hope that tempts the world public. The two countries of Israel and Palestine who are in long and tiring conflict stand side by side on the basis of equality. The vision of creating eternal peace and security.
The "two state solution" is always quoted by the world's streaming media because it comes from the key players on the peace stage, the USA, the European Union and Israel. Apart from these three entities, it could be said that the conquered power is subordinate to the diplomatic stage. The state of Israel exists without definitive territorial boundaries, while the state of Palestine does not exist, except for the remaining 5-10% towards total elimination.
Another answer, because the "two state solution" is diplomatic magic to cover up the colonial practice of "Israel's one state solution" which de facto continues to this day.
The "two state solution" as an option is narrated simultaneously historically as if Israel and Palestine were two parties claiming no-man's land from 1947-2023. Each of them will not give up an inch of land that is rightfully theirs, which both of them say is a hardline group; Israel and Palestine.
This is no exception after the 2023 Aqsa operation. Biden also breathed the magic of the "two state solution" along with the assistance of various bombs for the Israeli apartheid regime in genocidating the people of Gaza.
The genocide of Gaza Palestinians carried out by the regime of the Liquid Party (Netanyahu) and the hard-right, Democratic Party USA and Biden is basically the same entity as the Republican Party USA and the Israeli liberal group. These two groups of political categories are often used as material for consumption by observers, to impress the democratic performance behind the Palestinian colony project.
The words "two state solution" are not a neutral statement, but a design of diplomatic magic. Get out of the rhetoric of the rulers of the USA, Israel and Europe. Among them were randomly detected by Biden (2023), Boris Johnson (2021) 2002 (Bush), Hillary Clinton and Obama (2009, 2015), 2007 Simon Peres (1995, 2012), Netanyahu (2013, 2016), Donald Trump (2017 ), John Kerry (2014).
Former Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Olmert (2007) admitted that “if the day comes when [the idea of] a two-state solution collapses and we face a South African-style struggle for equal voting rights”, then we will face “apartheid” resistance and the State of Israel will end” (McCarthy, 2007). Something similar happened in 2017, when another former Israeli PM, Ehud Barak, warned that the regime was “on a slippery slope” towards apartheid (Kaplan, 2017).
The two state solution historically departed from the 1947 UN Plan, resulting in a de facto "one apartheid state solution-Israel" until 2023. Covering the territories awarded (mandate) as a result of British occupation from Ottoman Turkey plus Israeli occupation in the 1967 6 day war, the West Bank and Gaza , from Jordan and Egypt. The results of Israel's occupation of Gaza and the West Bank were used as a tool to pressure Jordan, Egypt, and the PLO recognized the Israeli entity as a legal occupier and had the right to live on Palestinian land. Even when Hamas was having problems in Syria, in 2017 in Qatar it included point 20 of the 42 points in the principle document of struggle. Not recognizing the Israeli entity since 1948, at the same time considering a "two state solution".
What was called the "two state solution" for Palestine from 1967 until the 1993 Oslo agreement was a promise that Palestine would get 22% (West Bank and Gaza) of all historical Palestinian land and Jerusalem as the capital. From 1993 to 2023, the promised land was de facto only 5% in the process of total disappearance through the practice of the 2023 genocide.
The “Two State Solution” Catastrophe
If the world's eyes focused on the remaining map of Palestine, they would quickly realize the true bitter reality. But when focused on the misleading plot of “two state solution” peace magic, the voice of the world becomes frozen and powerless.
In 1993, Israel, led by Foreign Minister Rabin Shimon Peres, held a series of negotiations with the PLO in Oslo, Norway. In early September Yasser Arafat sent a letter to Rabin saying that the PLO recognized Israel's right to exist, accepted UN Resolutions 242 and 338 (which called for lasting peace with Israel in return for Israel's withdrawal to the pre-1967 borders), renounced terrorism. and violence. A few days later signed the Declaration of Principles (known as the Oslo Accords), agreeing to establish Palestinian self-government for five years in return for Palestinian partnership in Israeli security matters. The most controversial issues (including Jerusalem, final borders and Jewish settlements in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, as well as the return of Palestinian refugees) will be discussed after the five-year period.
The Israeli-Palestinian interim agreement on the West Bank and Gaza Strip (1995), building on the Oslo Accords of 1993, divided the West Bank and Gaza Strip into areas A (Palestinian civil and security control), B (Palestinian civilian control and joint Israeli security control-Palestine), and C (Israeli civil and security control).
Negotiations continued as Israel and the PLO attempted to implement a two-state solution. In May 1994, an agreement reached in Cairo led to the withdrawal of Israeli troops from the cities of Gaza and Jericho that same month and the creation of the Palestinian Authority (PA) to carry out civilian functions in the region. The Palestinian Authority's autonomous rule was extended to six other cities in 1995, following the conclusion of the Interim Agreement concerning the West Bank and Gaza Strip (known as Oslo II). The seventh city, Hebron, was to be handed over in 1996. The agreement also divided the West Bank and Gaza Strip into three types of areas: areas under Palestinian administration and security (“Area A”), areas under Palestinian administration but joint territories. Israeli-Palestinian security (“Area B”), and territories under Israeli administration and security (“Area C”).
“Two state solution” also refers to the 1967 lines. It refers to the armistice lines before the Six Day War, when Israel annexed the Gaza Strip from Egypt and the West Bank and East Jerusalem from Jordan, and expanded its territory beyond the “Green Line” borders delineated by the ceasefire. weapons in 1949 between Israel and its Arab neighbors.
After the war, Israel militarily occupied Gaza and the West Bank and allowed Jews to build settlements in both areas. In 2005 former Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon withdrew troops and settlers from Gaza, which is now controlled by the Palestinian Islamist group Hamas. Hamas rejects Israel's right to exist – Green Line or no Green Line.
The "two state solution" is a political operation simultaneously with Israeli military operations. Will not come out of the shadow of the League of Nations (1947), the UN Veto, the UK (Colonial Mandate), the USA (super power) and the European Union (sub-super power). They were the winners of the second world war, the determinants of war, negotiations and various forms of peace.
Once again, the “two state solution” is the narrative of the fake-USA peace brokers. Followed by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs from countries wishing to establish a Palestinian state in international legal forums.
Meanwhile, de facto Israel continues to build a "Zion one state solution" by practicing apartheid policies. Expanding the territory of illegal settlers, building walls and highways and racist alleys, killing, expelling, controlling the residents of the West Bank and East Jerusalem. Blockading Gaza for 17 years, most recently by committing genocide and planning to move its citizens to Sinai, Egypt and Jordan.
The "two state solution" has existed since the 1947 UN Plan. It has never been a serious political agenda for all of Israel's rulers from 1948 to 2023. Even if it existed, it always started from the 1967 borders, by Israeli liberal groups who wanted the annexation of 40-60% of the West Bank region. Meanwhile, the liquid and hardline parties stand on a "one state solution", controlling all of Palestine, from the pre-1947 borders, even including areas of Egypt, Lebanon, Syria and Iraq. So it could be said that even if there is a group of Israeli liberal politicians who seem to support a "two state solution", it is basically just an image of colonial-style democracy. Both are practicing a "one state solution" for Greater Israel.
So it is not an exaggeration if the "two state solution" which is based on resolution 242, even becomes part of Israel's "one state solution" strategy. The strategy for establishing the Israeli Zion state was the practice of occupying and controlling territory through engineering war designed to win.
Thus once again, the “two-state solution” and the idea of “returning to the 1967 borders” are misleading and obscure the reality of Palestine's possible future, for several reasons. The idea of a 'two state solution' is in contrast to the reality of the practice of the "one state" Israeli apartheid regime.
All requirements set by the UNSC (res. 242 and its successors) to “return to the 1967 borders” have actually been destroyed by the practices of the Israeli apharteid regime. Such as occupation practices, construction of illegal settlements, racist road divisions, check points, separation walls and blockades of Gaza, both land, sea and air.
Therefore, the best solution is "one state democratic solution" for the three religions; Judaism, Islam and Christianity are equal, just and eternal versions of Palestine and the world outside the US, Israel and the European Union.
Israel's apartheid regime must be dismantled, not with a "two state solution". Because as Washington and Israel well understood, the ‘two-state’ disorder concealed apartheid and prevented the formation of a broad anti-apartheid movement.